Moniz to Unveil Carbon Dioxide Removal Technology Report at Climate Week NYC

The Energy Futures Initiative, the Washington-based nonprofit established by former Energy Secretary Ernest J. Moniz, has conducted a 12-month study on the design of a comprehensive federal research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) initiative to evaluate and demonstrate a range of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies that can help address climate change. 

In its report, Clearing the Air, EFI is proposing an RD&D initiative capable of achieving breakthrough improvements in CDR technologies that are capable of deployment at or near gigaton scale, with minimal ecological impacts, in a timeframe supportive of science-based climate goals. The report includes an expansive research portfolio, organizational and management arrangement, and detailed budget estimates for the proposed CDR RD&D initiative.

Moniz, who served as President Barack Obama’s Secretary of Energy from 2013-2017, will introduce the report at NYC Climate Week on Tuesday, September 24 at 8:00 AM. You can livestream the event here.He will be joined by Fred Krupp, president of the Environmental Defense Fund, and a panel of experts working at the cutting edge of carbon removal technologies.

“We need to face the reality that meeting the Paris Agreement objective of limiting global warming to below two degrees Celsius will require taking carbon out of the atmosphere at massive scale,”  said Moniz. “The good news is that there are a surprisingly large number of promising pathways for CDR.”

Clearing the Air is the 12th report issued by EFI since its inception in 2017, and was sponsored by the Linden Trust for Conservation and the ClimateWorks Foundation. A full list of EFI’s analytic content can be found here


Press Release: Moniz Reveals Framework for a “Green Real Deal”  

Washington, D.C. (July 31, 2019): Today, former U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest J. Moniz introduced a framework for the “Green Real Deal” at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce “EnergyInnovates” Summit.

The “Green Real Deal” aims to address the moral, social, environmental and economic imperatives of the climate crisis by offering a coalition-building strategy that translates climate mitigation ambitions into pragmatic actions.  

Its mission is to provide a framework for accelerating deep decarbonization by mid-century in ways that minimize costs, maximize economic opportunities, and promote social equity. You can read the framework here.

The framework for the “Green Real Deal” is built upon five key principles:

  1. Technology, Business Model, and Policy Innovations Are Essential

  2. Social Equity Is Essential for Success

  3.   Broad and Inclusive Coalitions Must Be Built 

  4. All GHG Emitting Sectors Must be Addressed in Climate Solutions

  5. Optionality and Flexibility are Needed for Technologies, Policies and Regions of the Country 

Moniz, who served as Secretary of Energy in the Obama Administration, has emphasized the need for a broad coalition to address climate change. This morning in Axios, Moniz stated that in order to reach net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, “everybody, including the Chamber and their membership, has to walk the talk.” 

In March, Moniz and Andy Karsner— George W. Bush’s assistant energy secretary for renewable energy— issued an op-ed calling for “a wise and just transition to a low-carbon economy, [that moves] as fast as is technically and socially possible, [and minimizes] stranded physical assets as well as stranded workers and communities.”

Moniz to Address Chamber of Commerce on Low-Carbon Strategies

Washington, D.C. (July 26, 2019): Former U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest J. Moniz will introduce the framework for a “Green Real Deal” at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce “EnergyInnovates” summit tomorrow. Moniz, founder and CEO of the Energy Futures Initiative, will discuss pathways that will be essential to facilitating the rapid energy transition to net-zero emissions by midcentury to an audience of global energy leaders at the event. You can register for the event here.

Moniz, who served as President Barack Obama’s Secretary of Energy from 2013-2017, has earlier addressed the urgent need for a broad coalition behind any set of actions on climate. The Green Real Deal’s elements include policies that are:

  • Science-based and analytically sound;

  • Pragmatic in providing maximum optionality and flexibility, enabling a broad coalition to form;

  • Relevant to all sectors of the economy, particularly those difficult to decarbonize such as transportation, industry, and agriculture;

  • Able to vary from region to region, in recognition that low-carbon solutions will necessarily be location dependent; and,

  • Designed to advance social equity and workforce skills development.

Earlier this year, Moniz and Andy Karsner— George W. Bush’s assistant energy secretary for renewable energy— issued an op-ed on calling for a push that “strive[s] for a broader public consensus that respects local differences and allows all citizens equal opportunity to build a prosperous, fair, safe and secure low-carbon future.”

Moniz’s presentation will be held on Wednesday, July 31 at 1:00 PM at the U.S. Chamber’s Global Energy Institute  “EnergyInnovates: All In’’ Summit in Washington D.C. (1615 H St. NW)  Featuring top business and government leaders, the summit (8:30 am-2:30 pm) will showcase innovators, projects, and technologies that have shaped today’s energy landscape – and are laying the groundwork for the future. Credentialed media should RSVP to GEI’s Matt Letourneau (

EFI's Moniz Joins Energy Leaders at Vatican Summit

On June 13-14, 2019, the Vatican’s Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development and the University of Notre Dame hosted, for the second time, a Dialogueat the Pontifical Academy of the Sciences (Casina Pio IVin the Vatican) on The Energy Transition and Care for Our Common Home.

The participants of this second Dialogue, were executives from among the world’s leading oil and gas producers, global investors, scholars of Climate Science and high level representatives of the academic world. 

The meeting was opened by a welcome speech by Card. Peter K.A. Turkson, Prefect of the Dicastery, in which he welcomed the participants, old and new, to the Dialogue,and thanked them, on behalf of the Dicastery, for their generous response to its invitation to the Dialogue. Then, recalling the subject matter of the Dialogue,Energy transition and care for our common home,which against the background of the last COP 24 meeting in Katowice needs to be treated with utmost urgency, he exhorted the participants to courage. For, moments of crisis are also moments of opportunity for discoveries, advancement and growth.

In this regards, the Cardinal noted that “humanity did not transit from the stone age to the copper and bronze ages because it ran out of stones. It was because advancement and growth required it.So, must it be with fossil fuel. Energy transitionand the care for our common home must not only be a response to the need to fully humanize the energy industry. It must also respond to the demands of the advancement and growth of a vital sector of human civilization”. 

Both the first and second Dialogues were facilitated by Dr. Carolyn Woo, former Dean of the University of Notre Dame Mendoza College of Business, and Prof. Leo Burke, Director of the Climate Investing Initiative of the Mendoza College of Business at the University of Notre Dame.

At its foundation, human civilization and progress have always relied on energy; and the world’s energy mix is clearly in transition. A powerful driver of the energy transition is the undeniable reality of the climate crisis and an unprecedented interference in theecosystem of the world/creation, which are attributed to the grave carbon footprint of such traditional sources of energy, as coal, oil and gas, and which have dire consequences especially on poor communities in the world. Accordingly, Pope Francis describes the earth and the poor as crying to us to be listened to with sympathy on account of the negative footprints of our energy sources and lifestyles. These confront us, "not with two separate crises, one environmental and the other social, but rather with one complex crisis which is both social and environmental"(LS, 139). The Dialogue on paths forward about Energy transition and care for our common home was the participants recognition of the crisis-situation and their quest for solutions. Thus they did three things:

A.   The participants recognized that:

     addressing this social-ecological crisis requires radical change at all levels, both personal and collective;

      this transition needs the support of markets, significant adoption of renewables as a source of energy, increased efficiency in the use of existing resources, new technologies, farsighted policies, educated civil society, and new forms of global leadership and cooperation.

B.   The participants agreed on the urgent need for a systematic transition to a low-carbon emissions future, consistent with care for people, aimed at keeping global warming below 2°C.

C.   The participants discussed the paths forward with a specific focus on:

      integral role of a just transition that addresses the needs of disadvantaged populations;

      importance of carbon pricing toward the reduction of emissions; 

      necessity for corporate disclosures to provide clear information on strategies and actions, governance process and performance.

For the first time, most dialogue participants were also signatories to statements on the importance of carbon pricing toward the reduction of emissions, and the necessity for disclosures to provide clear information on strategies and actions, governance process and performance regarding climate change.

Accordingly, Fr. John I. Jenkins, C.S.C., President of the University of Notre Dame, observed: “Collectively, these leaders will influence the planet future, perhaps more than any in the world”. “I am deeply grateful,” – he added – “for their commitment to the transition to a low carbon future while providing the energy needed to support the integral human development of every member of the human family.”

 As neither energy transition nor climate change can be reduced to economic, technological, and regulatory issues alone, the participants recognized the need for encouraging and reassuring words of moral authority. This came providentially in the visit of Pope Francis to the Dialogue group in the Casina Pio IV at the end of their deliberations to address them and to bless their resolve, their work and families. 

The Vatican Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development and the University of Notre Dame are immensely grateful to all participants for their generous response to their invitation to the Dialogue, as well as all support staff.  At the end of the Dialogue, we cannot help but be humbled by the rich engagement, sense of urgency, honest exchange, and spirit of collaboration demonstrated in this meeting. Let us move forward with resolute persistence keeping in mind the question from Laudato Si’, “What kind of world do we want to leave to our children and those yet unborn?”


Photo credit: Vatican Media

Photo credit: Vatican Media

EFI California Energy Study Outlines Agenda to Maintain Global Leadership


The Energy Futures Initiative, founded in 2017 by former U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest J. Moniz and colleagues, has released its full report on pathways for meeting California’s aggressive 2030 low-carbon energy goals and the innovation agenda needed for mid-century deep decarbonization. 

WASHINGTON, D.C (May 2, 2019) : The Energy Futures Initiative, Inc. (EFI), a not-for-profit think tank dedicated to driving innovation in energy technology, policy, and business models, published the full findings of a study outlining how the state of California can maintain its global leadership in forging a low-carbon energy economy. 

The study, Optionality, Flexibility & Innovation: Pathways for Deep Decarbonization in California, examines 33 clean energy pathways and technology options that California policymakers must consider as it plans and executes an unprecedented transformation of its energy system. 

The full report, Summary for Policymakers, and Fact Sheet are all available for download at

Read more here.

David Foster Testifies Before House Select Committee on Climate Crisis

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EFI Distinguished Associate David Foster testified before the House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis on April 30, 2019. The Committee, chaired by Representative Kathy Castor (FL-14), convened to discuss “Solving the Climate Crisis: Drawing Down Carbon and Building Up the American Economy.”

In his oral testimony, Foster emphasized that “we need to embrace an all-of-the-above, flexible strategy toward climate solutions. There is no silver bullet that can guide our economy to a low-carbon endpoint.”

Click here to watch the testimony.

Click here for a PDF of David Foster’s oral testimony.

Moniz Joins with John Kerry for an Earth Day Call to Action in USA Today

On Earth Day, EFI Founder Ernest J. Moniz joined with former Secretary of State John Kerry for an Earth Day opinion piece in USA Today about the urgent need to work together to end climate change.

``Forty-nine years ago, twenty million Americans came together on the first Earth Day and launched another first: putting environmental issues front and center on the national political agenda. The message: policymakers at all levels of government will be held accountable by voters for their records on environmental stewardship and protection.

No matter what any of us might think about the key players or their politics, the elected leaders across the 1970 political spectrum — from Gaylord Nelson to Richard Nixon — ultimately ensured a cleaner environment with a strong economy and improved health. We are all beneficiaries of the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, establishment of the EPA, and much more.

Fast forward five decades. Sixty-nine percent of Americans say that they are ‘worried” about climate change. The scientific and national security communities warn us about its destabilizing impacts and enormous costs. In a burst of activism wonderfully similar to the original Earth Day, thousands of young people are walking out of their classrooms to protest inaction on climate change.’’

Read the entire piece here:

Ernest Moniz receives public policy award from American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Ernest J. Moniz, MIT professor emeritus, nuclear physicist, and former United States Secretary of Energy and Founder of the Energy Futures Initiative, is the recipient of the American Academy of Arts and Science’s inaugural Award for Excellence in Public Policy and Public Affairs. The award, presented at an April 11 ceremony, was created to recognize excellence, independence, and effectiveness in public service. 

When presenting the award, former US Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter, a fellow physicist, shared his admiration for Moniz as a thoughtful colleague who provided sound council when they served together in President Obama’s cabinet. “I was very grateful to have him as a colleague,” said Carter.

Moniz reflected on collaborating with Carter on nuclear defense issues, developing the Iran nuclear deal with then-Secretary of State John Kerry, and leading technology initiatives to address climate change during his tenure as Secretary of Energy.

“It gave me a chance to apply a scientific manner of thought to important problems, especially in global affairs,” he said, adding, “When a President has among his priorities two of your mission areas—the clean energy and climate mission and the nuclear security mission—that’s a pretty good time to be in that position.”

In addition to being a key coalition builder for the Paris Agreement, Moniz played a central role in developing and launching Mission Innovation, a multi-national initiative dedicated to advancing clean energy. That initiative, he said, made “a statement that technology innovation in clean energy is at the core of the solutions to climate change.”

 Moniz spoke about employing “science statesmanship” to engage across party lines and internationally, with a “pragmatic, step-by-step approach” to achieve sustained progress. He underscored the importance of building political coalitions around “low-carbon and social equity” measures. 

He credited his mentor, the late MIT Institute Professor Herman Feshbach, with encouraging his participation in public affairs and public policy. “He was a person who was dedicated to the dialogue—the scientific exchange, and exchanges more broadly—as absolutely fundamental to risk reduction,” Moniz said of Feshbach, who was also a past president of the Academy.

“Ernie’s work combines deep intellect and broad impact,” said David W. Oxtoby, the Academy’s current president. “Ernie exemplifies values that are important to the American Academy by applying scholarship to service and bringing policy concerns to academia. He is the perfect choice for our inaugural recipient of the Award for Excellence in Public Policy and Public Affairs.”

 “I’m very, very honored to receive this award and it will give me further inspiration to take steps forward on the way to longer-term solutions,” said Moniz.

Moniz was on the MIT faculty from 1973 until 2013, when he became US Secretary of Energy. He is now the Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physics and Engineering Systems Emeritus and special advisor to the MIT President. He was the founding director of the MIT Energy Initiative. He is president and chief executive officer of the Energy Futures Initiative, a Washington-based energy technology and policy innovation nonprofit, as well as co-chair of the board of directors and CEO of the Nuclear Threat Initiative.

— By Emily Dahl

Moniz AAAS Smiling.jpeg

Moniz Presents New EFI Report on Decarbonizing California's Economy

Yesterday, EFI Founder and CEO Ernest Moniz introduced the EFI Report Optionality, Flexibility & Innovation: Pathways for Deep Decarbonization in California at the Stanford Precourt Institute for Energy. His introduction of the report was followed by a presentation by EFI Principal Melanie Kenderdine and a panel moderated by Professor Franklin “Lynn” Orr.

Watch the archived livestream below or here:

The Honorable Ernest Moniz and distinguished colleagues will discuss a new report authored by the Energy Futures Initiative "Optionality, Flexibility, & Innovation: Pathways for a Deep Decarbonization in California" and will take questions about the technologies, policies, investments, and innovation needed for California to meet the state's aggressive carbon reduction goals.

EFI California Energy Study Outlines Agenda to Maintain Global Leadership

The Energy Futures Initiative, founded in 2017 by former U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest J. Moniz and colleagues, presents pathways for meeting California’s aggressive 2030 low-carbon energy goals and the innovation agenda needed for mid-century deep decarbonization. 

WASHINGTON, D.C (April 10, 2019) : The Energy Futures Initiative, Inc. (EFI), a not-for-profit think tank dedicated to driving innovation in energy technology, policy and business models, unveiled the findings of a study outlining how the state of California can maintain its global leadership position in forging a low-carbon energy economy at Stanford University today.

The study, Optionality, Flexibility & Innovation: Pathways for Deep Decarbonization in California, examined the pathways and technology options that California policymakers must consider as it plans and executes an unprecedented transformation of its energy system. 

The Summary for Policy Makers is available for download at The full report will follow later this month. 

The state has committed to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 80% or more below 1990 levels by 2050, with an ambitious interim target of 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. The high-level outcome of the study is that California can indeed meet its aggressive 2030 and mid-century targets. However, doing so will require success across multiple sectors of the economy, with multiple technologies contributing in each. Meeting the goals and managing costs will require a strong focus on innovation and maximum optionality. 

EFI explored two separate but overlapping policy streams: a pathway to achieve the 2030 intermediate decarbonization goal, and a major effort to achieve deep decarbonization by mid-century, in line with California’s 2018 SB 100 legislation, which mandates net zero emissions electricity by 2045. 

The 2030 pathways are built by sector: agriculture, buildings, electricity, industry, and transportation. It further identifies key policies and technologies that currently contribute to the state’s ability to meet its 2030 goals and where technology innovation and policies need support. It also sets forth an innovation-centered approach to meeting the 2050 goal. 

The report team, led by EFI founder and CEO Ernest J. Moniz, conducted a modeling-informed analysis that included a top-down assessment of California’s deep decarbonization, as well as multiple bottom-up models that approximated how various technologies can contribute to the reduction of emissions.  Professor Moniz, who served as the 13thU.S. Secretary of Energy, is also an Emerson Collective Distinguished Fellow.

“California is a world leader in setting its economy on a path to low carbon, with ambitious goals for both 2030 and 2050,” said Moniz. “As Gov. Gavin Newsom noted in his inaugural State of the State address, policymakers must craft innovative, longer term solutions for California’s energy future. We hope that our report is a starting point for action.” 

 The report notes that Transportation is the single biggest emitting sector in the state and requires transformational change by 2030, and a range of energy innovations by 2050 to reduce emissions not only from light-duty vehicles but also from heavy-duty vehicles, aviation, marine and rail. For 2030, adherence to the planned CAFE standards has a larger impact than the shift to battery vehicles or to lower carbon fuels, but all three are essential for meeting the reduced emissions targets. 

“More than 950,000 Californians are employed in energy jobs, making the sector a key part of the state’s economy,” said EFI Principal Melanie Kenderdine. “The state’s workforce expertise, robust scientific and technological capacity and forward-looking political leadership positions it to be a first mover in the move to low carbon.”

The study identified multiple technology innovation domains that need to be pursued aggressively to underpin success in meeting the deep decarbonization objective, including:

·      Renewable generation technologies

·      Energy Efficiency 

·      Hydrogen 

·      Carbon Management (Direct Air Capture & CCUS)

·      Advanced Storage 

·      Renewable Natural Gas/Biogas

·      Electrification & Fuel Switching 

·      Smart Systems & Other Platform Technologies

 “Our approach was to match that capacity with pathways that minimize the disruptions to the state’s existing energy sector and find ways to accelerate the development of clean energy technologies, which potentially can provide hundreds of thousands more new jobs,” said Alex Kizer, EFI’s Director of Strategic Research.

The report’s initial findings will be discussed at a workshop today at Stanford University. Professor Moniz and colleagues will present and discuss the technologies, policies, investments and innovation needed for California to meet the state’s aggressive carbon reduction goals. 

The California study is the ninth report issued by EFI since its inception in 2017.  All of EFI’s analysis is independent and available to the public at no charge.  Report sponsors have no control over analytic content.


EFI-BPC Report Compares Federal Research Investments in Carbon Removal with NASEM Recommendations

Washington, D.C.– A new report from the Bipartisan Policy Center and Energy Futures Initiative finds that historical federal investments in carbon removal technologies fall far short of the funding levels a recent National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) assessment indicated are necessary to drive technology advances to meet international emissions reduction targets and avoid the worst effects of climate change.

In 2018, NASEM called on the U.S. federal government to make significant research investments across a portfolio of six carbon removal and enabling technologies to achieve international emission reduction targets. The latest BPC and EFI report finds that historical funding levels in all six of these technologies lag well behind the NASEM-recommended levels. This new analysis shows that the federal government has underinvested in technological forms of carbon removal like direct air capture and carbon mineralization – approaches that each have nearly unlimited carbon removal capacity. BPC and EFI find that past federal spending on direct air capture and carbon mineralization research add up to less than 1 percent and 4 percent respectively of the future funding needs to advance these technologies.

EFI Senior Analyst Tim Bushman led the research effort behind the EFI-BPC report.

“Government has played a key role in driving advances in many of the technologies we enjoy today through strong and sustained research investments,” said Jason Grumet, president of the Bipartisan Policy Center. “It is crucial that we continue to invest in research at the level needed to capture the economic and competitiveness benefits associated with pioneering the next generation of better and cleaner advanced technologies including carbon removal.” 

“We are far from a clean energy trajectory that would meet the Paris Agreement goal of global warming less than 2 degrees Centigrade,” said former Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz. “We need to invest in large-scale carbon management. This is not a simple agenda—it will require fundamental science breakthroughs and great dedication, but this is an obligation we must embrace now if we are to meet our climate goals.”


Read the report

Moniz & Karsner: What America needs is a 'Green Real Deal'

EFI Founder Ernest J. Moniz and Andy Karsner, Managing Partner of Emerson Collective, teamed up to publish a commentary for CNBC on the way forward on climate change policy:

The Green New Deal has sparked a timely impassioned national conversation on the imperative of addressing climate-change risks to our economy, environment and security and the associated needs of disadvantaged communities.

The mission is clear: Action is urgently needed to set and follow high-impact pathways to a low-carbon future. We must, however, strive for a broader public consensus that respects local differences and allows all citizens equal opportunity to build a prosperous, fair, safe and secure low-carbon future.

We should first dispel any question about the gravity of addressing climate change. The accelerated pace of change is significantly stressing the world's natural, social and economic systems. We are already paying the price — extreme weather, forest fires, drought, sea-level rise and coastal storm intensity are all high-cost leading indicators.

Read more here

Moniz Testifies Before Senate Committee on the Future of Clean Energy Innovation

On February 7, CEO and Founder Ernest Moniz testified before the Senate Committee on Energy & Natural Resources on the status and outlook of energy innovation in the United States. Read an excerpt of his testimony below:

“Chairman Murkowski, Ranking Member Manchin and Members of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss the future of energy innovation in the United States.

It was my pleasure to appear multiple times before this Committee during the time I had the honor of serving as the 13th U.S. Secretary of Energy. Throughout my time of service, I found that Members of the Committee from both sides of the aisle came together on numerous occasions to support U.S. energy innovation. I hope that the 116th Congress will continue this tradition.

Much of my career has focused on energy innovation. At MIT, I established the MIT Energy Initiative, which had a significant focus on innovation in a carbon-constrained environment and engaged all of MIT’s Schools. As Secretary of Energy, I made clean energy innovation a cornerstone of the Department’s initiatives and policy. And now, at the Energy Futures Initiative, clean energy innovation is a pillar of our policy analysis. EFI has produced policy papers on important elements of energy innovation, including the national security foundation for the commercial nuclear energy sector; implementation of the 45Q tax credit program for carbon capture, utilization and storage; expanding the DOE Loan programs to leverage increased innovation in energy infrastructures; and application of blockchain technology to management of energy systems and services.

Importance of Energy Innovation

Energy innovation is the essence of America’s security and strength. Our ability to innovate is at the heart of American economic success and optimism. Innovation drives job creation, contributes to national security, addresses complex societal challenges and improves our quality of life.

For the past seven decades, the United States has been the global leader in technology and energy innovation. Central to U.S. leadership in innovation is our unparalleled innovation ecosystem which includes the Federal, state, local and tribal governments; national laboratories; research universities; the private sector; nonprofits and philanthropies.

The U.S. is undergoing rapid change in the global competitive environment, challenging America’s preeminent position but also offering immense opportunity for shaping the inevitable low-carbon global energy future. The science is clear, and the data are compelling—climate change is a major threat to our planet and to our way of life, and the clock is ticking. Nations in denial of climate change as a critical driver of an accelerated clean energy transformation will be left behind.”

Click here to download the testimony and the Executive Summary of our latest report, Advancing the Landscape of Clean Energy Innovation.

Click here to watch an archived webcast of the hearing.

Clean Energy Innovation Report Identifies Breakthrough Technologies

A new report on clean energy innovation headed by two of the world’s leading energy experts assesses the state of the clean energy innovation ecosystem in the U.S. and identifies clean energy technologies with the highest breakthrough potential.

The report—led by former U.S. Secretary of Energy and Energy Futures Initiative founder, Ernest J. Moniz and IHS Markit vice chairman Daniel Yergin—evaluates ways to maintain U.S. leadership in clean energy innovation by better aligning the policies, players and programs that will drive technologies that can keep the nation globally competitive. The report, entitled Advancing the Landscape of Clean Energy Innovation was commissioned by Breakthrough Energy.

The report assesses energy technologies based on four criteria—technical merit, market viability, compatibility with other energy systems and consumer value.